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U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Translingual

Stroke order
9 strokes

Han character

(radical 18, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived characters

References

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Tok Saina


Glyph origin

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
前-bronze.svg 前-silk.svg 前-slip.svg 前-seal.svg 前-bigseal.svg

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意): (foot) + (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward.

In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (“to cut”).

Etymology 1

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠝣
𣥑
𣦃

Templet:unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
    • chiân - literary;
    • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年);
    • chân - vernacular (limited).
    Note:
    • zoin5 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
    • zain5 - Jieyang, Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Definitions

    [[Category:Templet:zh Han characterss|前]]

    1. front; forepart
        ―  qiánfāng  ―  the front
      /   ―  qiánmén  ―  front door
        ―  wǎng qián zǒu  ―  to move forward
      房子 / 房子  ―  Fángzi qián yǒu yī kē shù.  ―  There is a tree in front of the house.
      Antonym:
    2. ago; before
        ―  qián  ―  previously; ago
      /   ―  qián jǐ tiān  ―  the other day
      時代 / 时代  ―  shǐqián shídài  ―  prehistoric times
      習慣吃飯喝湯 [MSC, trad.]
      习惯吃饭喝汤 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ xíguàn chīfàn qián xiān hētāng. [Pinyin]
      I'm used to having soup before my meal.
    3. past; previous; former; earlier
        ―  qiánrèn  ―  predecessor
      副總統 / 副总统  ―  qián fùzǒngtǒng  ―  ex-vice president
      功盡棄 / 功尽弃  ―  qiángōngjìnqì  ―  all the previous effort is wasted
      /   ―  qiánhàn  ―  the Former (Western) Han
    4. top; foremost; leading
        ―  qián sān míng  ―  top three
    5. future; time ahead
        ―  qiánchéng  ―  future; prospects
    6. to move forward
      勇往直  ―  yǒngwǎngzhíqián  ―  to advance bravely
    7. A surname​.[[Category:Templet:zh surnames|前]]

    Usage notes

    may refer to either the past or the future depending on one's perspective that is often implied by the context idiomatically. The set phrase 前天 specifically refers to the day before yesterday.

    Compounds

    Descendants

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Siapan: (ぜん) (zen)
    • Korean: (, jeon)
    • Vietnamese: tiền ()

    Etymology 2

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    References


    Flag of Japan.svg Tok Siapan


    Kanji

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. in front
    2. before

    Readings

    Compounds

    Etymology 1

    Kanji in this term
    まえ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (peTemplet:sub, direction, -wards).[1][2] Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *mapya.

    Templet:IPAfont/maɸe//mawe//maje//mae/

    Pronunciation

    Noun

    (まえ) (maeまへ (mafe)?

    1. the front
      (まえ)(すす)
      mae e susumu
      to advance forwards
      (literally, “to advance towards the front”)
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]
      Antonym: 後ろ (ushiro)
    2. the past
      (まえ)から()になってたんだけど []
      mae kara ki ni natteta n da kedo []
      I've been thinking about it for a while, but []
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]
      ずっと(まえ)からそう(おも)ってた
      zutto mae kara sō omotteta
      I've thought that for ages
      (literally, “I've been thinking that way since forever ago”)
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]
      (まえ)にも()よう
      mae ni mo itta yō ni
      as I've said before
      (literally, “just as I have said in the past”)
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]
      Antonym: (ato)
    3. previous
      (まえ)()()
      mae no kiji
      previous entries
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]
      Antonym: (tsugi)

    Suffix

    (まえ) (-mae

    1. a portion, an amount
      (ろく)(にん)(まえ)()(ぜん)
      rokunin-mae no go-zen
      a banquet for six people
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]

    Etymology 2

    Kanji in this term
    さき
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: .)

    Etymology 3

    Kanji in this term
    ぜん
    Grade: 2
    goon

    From Middle Chinese . Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

    Pronunciation

    Counter

    (ぜん) (-zen

    1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
    2. counter for kami and shrines

    Prefix

    (ぜん) (zen-

    1. the last, the previous
    2. pre- (of an era)

    Etymology 4

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    Contraction of ()() (goze), itself a contraction of ()(ぜん) (go-zen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

    Pronunciation

    Suffix

    () (-ze

    1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
      (あま)()
      ama-ze
      (honorable) nun
      [[Category:Tok Siapan terms with usage examples|前]]

    References

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean

    Etymology

    From Middle Chinese . Templet:hanja-ety

    Pronunciation

    Templet:ko-hanja-pron

    Hanja

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ap jeon))

    1. Hanja form? of (front; before). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (ex-; previous). [prefix]

    Compounds

    References

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese

    Han character

    : Hán Nôm readings: tiền, tèn

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.